Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML): AML affects myeloid stem cells, which develop into multiple types of mature blood cells, like red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. AML occurs when a myeloid stem cell becomes cancerous, producing diseased cells. These immature cells do not function as required and multiply rapidly, crowding out healthy cells severely affecting the patient’s immune system, and leading to frequent infections.
AML is aggressive and can be particularly difficult to treat and is most common in adults with a five-year survival rate of less than 28%, which varies based on the subtype and cancer staging. AML also affects children irrespective of their age. AML subtypes are distinguished based on the differences the diseased cells exhibit compared to healthy cells and the development process. Specific chromosome abnormalities in these cancer cells and the disease’s genetic mutations also impact the prognosis.
Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL): ALL is more common in children, having positive treatment outcomes. ALL can occur in adults irrespective of age, with treatments not yielding the desired results of late a majority of individuals who have developed ALL are under the age of 20, with a five-year survival rate of 68%.
The condition affects the white blood cells called lymphocytes and spreads rapidly creating immature blood cells instead of mature ones, weakening the body’s defence mechanisms and is also called Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML): Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) primarily affects older adults above 55 years, with rare occurrence in children. CML, also referred to as Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia or Chronic Granulocytic Leukaemia, increases the white blood cell count, resulting in an enlarged spleen, and spreads slowly compared to other forms of cancer.