Cancer Treatment

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is found in the testicles, which are situated within the scrotum, a sac-like structure beneath the penis, which holds two testicles on each side.

Testicles or testes are a part of the male reproductive organs which produces male sex hormones (testosterone) and sperm.

Testicular cancer originates in either or both of the testicles. More often, they start in the sperm-producing germ cells of the organ and is relatively rarer compared to other cancer categories.

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer:

Symptoms of testicular cancer include the following signs:

A lump in the testicles
Enlargement of the testicles
Abdominal pains
Pain in the groin
Fluid collection in the scrotum
Pain and discomfort
Back pain
Cancer Treatment

Types of Testicular Cancer

There are the following types of testicular cancers depending upon the growth, nature and location of existence.
Germ Cell Tumour: The majority of testicular cancer cases (research indicates 90% of cases) start in the germ cells of the testes. These cells are responsible for producing sperm. There are generally a few types of germ cell tumours and are as mentioned below:
Seminomas: These tumours are slow-growing and do not metastasize quickly. Seminomas can increase the levels of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) in the blood. This hormone (HCG) is, therefore, considered a marker for testicular cancer and is used for diagnosis and screening. Seminomas are further divided into two subtypes:
  • Classical (or typical) seminomas
  • Spermatocytic seminomas
Non-seminomas: These cancers are typically seen in late teens and are classified into 4 subtypes. Non-seminoma cancers are either of these subtypes or a combination of these:
  • Embryonal carcinoma
  • Yolk sac carcinoma
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Teratoma
Carcinoma In Situ: Carcinoma in situ is also known as Intratubular germ cell neoplasia. This is a noninvasive disease in the germ cells, which may or may not develop into cancer. In testicular in situ carcinoma, the structure of the germ cells appears abnormal, when seen under a microscope. The name intratubular germ cell neoplasia comes from the seminiferous tubules, the tubes where sperms are produced.
Stromal tumours: Stroma is the supportive and hormone-producing cells of the testicles. The tumours that originate here are called the gonadal stromal tumours. They account for 5% of adult testicular cancer. They are of two types:
  • Leydig Cell tumours
  • Sertoli Cell tumours
Secondary testicular cancers: Secondary testicular cancers are the ones that start in other body parts and spread to the testicular tissue.

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Causes of Testicular Cancer:

A few risk factors and causes that are associated with testicular cancers are:

  • An undescended testicle: When a male fetus is growing in the womb, the testicles develop outside the scrotal sac and then transcend into the scrotum before birth. In a few cases, the testicles are unable to transcend, increasing the risk of testicular cancer. Although the testes are moved into the scrotal sac surgically does not eliminate the risk and this condition is also called cryptorchidism. However, a large percentage of a male who has testicular cancer do not have a history of undescended testicles.
  • Abnormal testicle development: Conditions such as Klinefelter’s syndrome may cause the testicles to develop abnormally, putting the individual at a higher risk of testicular cancer.
  • Family History: If an immediate family member has developed cancer, it increases the risk of cancer.
  • Age: Although, testicular cancer can occur at any age, but is more commonly seen in men between the ages of 15 and 35.

When to see the Doctor?

Pain and discomfort in the scrotum, groin and surrounding areas, without any form of external injury and should be inspected immediately. If you are experiencing any of these signs and symptoms, it is recommended to consult a doctor immediately.
Our specialists recommend treatment approaches based on the screening and diagnosis, which confirm the type, stage and origin of cancer.

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Thangam Hospital has competent specialists to provide specialized care and meticulously handle complex procedures and excellent support personnel

Prevention of Testicular Cancer

There is no particular way to prevent testicular cancer. However, regular screenings, if a person is at high risk, can prevent any complications.

Screening For Testicular Cancer

The screening and diagnosis of testicular cancer can include the following tests and procedures:

  • Physical Examination: A complete examination of the body to check for any signs of infection, lumps, lesions, or any unusual signs in the body, especially the scrotum and testicles.
  • Medical History: A complete medical history of the patients and the immediate family, their diseases, medications and treatment regimens will also be taken by our specialist.
  • Serum tumour marker test: The serum tumour marker test is a blood test to measure the levels of chemicals and hormones released by organs, tissues or cancerous cells in the body. These substances are linked to tumour cells and cancers and are called tumour markers.
    The following types of tumour markers can be used to detect testicular cancers:

    • Alpha-fetoprotein or AFP
    • Beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta HCG)
  • Inguinal orchiectomy: Once the tumour markers are tested, a procedure called Inguinal orchiectomy is performed to remove the testicle. This procedure is a type of biopsy and is done by making a small incision in the groin area. The testicle tissue is then viewed under a microscope to check for cancer cells and their type. This procedure will help determine the future course of action for the treatment of cancer.

Imaging Tests:

  • Ultrasound: High-energy sound waves are used to create images of the human body, organs and tissues with the help of echoes. These echoes form a sonogram, which provides a clear view of the tissues. Other imaging tests done are:
    • X-Ray
    • MRI
    • PET Scan

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Treatment for Testicular Cancer

Based on the screening and diagnosis, which confirms the type, stage and origin of cancer, a single or a combination of treatments is recommended by our specialists.

These treatments will also be based on an individual’s health condition and family medical history. The commonly used treatments are:


Surgery might be suggested to remove either one or both of the testicles, entirely. A few surrounding lymph nodes and healthy tissue may also be removed as a preventive measure to stop the cancer from spreading any further.

Radiation therapy:

Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy rays to eliminate cancerous cells. These radiations can be internal or external. In external radiation, a machine is made to target the radiation directly at the cancerous area.

In internal radiation, a small seed or device filled with radioactive substances is placed in the cancerous area. This allows the radiation to target the cancer cells locally. This treatment is more common in treating seminomas.


Chemotherapy is the use of drugs and medicines to destroy cancer cells. It is a type of systemic treatment where the cells that have travelled to other body parts can also be eliminated. Chemotherapy drugs travel through the bloodstream and can be taken orally or intravenously.

In advanced stages of cancer, stem cell treatments are suggested along with chemotherapy to administer healthy cells in the body.


Dr G.K.Shreedhar
Surgical oncology
Dr. Shreedhar G K
Surgical oncology
Dr. Saravana Rajamanickam
Radiation oncology
Dr. Karthick Rajamanickam
Radiation Oncology
Dr. N. Kathiresan
Medical Oncology
Dr. Bhavesh Poladia