PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to seek out malignant neoplasm cells within the body. A little amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The positron emission tomography scanner rotates around the body and makes an image of where glucose is getting used within the body. A PET scan and CT scan could also be done at an equivalent time. This is often called a PET-CT.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to form a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is additionally called nuclear resonance imaging (NMRI).
Thoracoscopy: A surgery to seem at the organs inside the chest to see for abnormal areas. An incision is formed between two ribs and a thoracoscope is inserted into the chest. A thoracoscope may be a thin, tube-like instrument with a light-weight and a lens for viewing. It is going to even have a tool to get rid of tissue or lymph gland samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. In some cases, this procedure could also be wont to remove a part of the oesophagus or lung.
Laparoscopy: A surgery to seem at the organs inside the abdomen to see for signs of disease. Incisions are made on the abdominal wall and a laparoscope is inserted through them for the procedure. Other instruments could also be inserted through an equivalent or other incisions to perform procedures like removing organs or taking tissue samples to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
Ultrasound exam: A procedure during which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs, like those within the neck, and make echoes. The echoes form an image of body tissues called a sonogram. The image is often printed to be checked out later.
After esophageal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to seek out out if cancer cells have spread within the oesophagus or to other parts of the body.