Cancer Treatment

Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland is a small organ and a part of the male reproductive system shaped like a walnut and is essentially responsible for producing seminal fluid and transporting sperm. Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland and is one of the most common forms of cancer.

It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate cancer grows slowly and hence does not metastasize quickly hence, it is usually less harmful than other cancer types.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:

Prostate cancer may not show any specific signs or symptoms in the early stages, however, later stages of cancer may exhibit any of the following symptoms or problems in men:

Blood in the semen
Blood in the urine
Decreased pressure while urinating
Erectile dysfunction
Pain in the bones
Problems while urinating
Unexplained weight loss
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Types of Prostate Cancer

Almost all known prostate cancers are adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma develops from the cells that produce the prostate fluid, which is added to the semen. Other insignificant cancer types that affect the prostate gland include:

  • Neuroendocrine tumours
  • Sarcomas
  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
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Precancerous conditions

Research indicates that prostate cancer normally starts as a precancerous condition and can be of the following types:

  • Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN):In this condition, the anatomy or the structure of the cells of the prostate glands starts to transform and is clearly visible under a microscope. Based on cell structures prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia can be classified as:
  • Low-Grade PIN:The patterns of the cell structure appear relatively normal.
  • High-Grade PIN:The patterns of the cell structure are relatively abnormal, indicating a possible risk and precursor to prostate cancer.
  • Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA):The prostate cells in PIA look smaller than normal with signs of inflammation. However, researchers and professionals do believe that Proliferative inflammatory atrophy can lead to high-grade PIN and thus cancer.

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Causes of Prostate Cancer

Multiple risk factors lead to the formation of cancerous cells in the body and some of these risk factors are preventable.
The risk factors include:

  • Age: The risk of prostate cancer in men increases with age.
  • Family History: If an immediate relative or a blood relative has developed cancer, then the chances of an individual, developing prostate cancer increase.
  • Obesity:Overweight or obese increases the risk of developing prostate cancer and treatments do not deliver the desired outcome in such scenarios.
  • Genetic factors:Inherited genes, such as BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, which are also responsible for cancers in the female reproductive system, can cause prostate cancers as well. Lynch syndrome is also known to be associated with prostate cancer.

When to see the Doctor?

Symptoms of prostate cancer appear at the later stages of cancer, and hence it would be best to consult our cancer specialist immediately as soon as you experience any discomfort or problems.
Our specialists recommend the best therapies for Prostrate Cancer depending on the type, stage and malignant nature of the cancer and your health condition.

Best-in-class patient-centric care

Thangam Hospital has competent specialists to provide specialized care and meticulously handle complex procedures and excellent support personnel.

Prevention of Prostate Cancer

Most of the risk factors are non-preventable, yet it would be best to make healthy lifestyle choices:
Eating a healthy and balanced diet comprising fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Avoiding unnecessary food supplements, especially without doctor approval.
Being persistent in exercising and maintaining physical activity.
Maintaining a healthy weight.
Undergoing periodical checkups and screening if you are at high risk.

Screening for Prostate Cancer

The screening tests for prostate cancer include the following diagnostics procedures:
PSA Blood Test: The prostate-specific or the PSA antigen blood test measures the level of a prostate antigen in the blood. Since this antigen is produced only by the prostate gland and the cancer cells in the gland, high levels of PSA can indicate abnormalities and benign enlargement of the gland also indicate high levels of PSA. Another reason for high PSA levels could be prostatitis- an inflammation of the prostate gland.
Digital Rectal Examination: Also, known as DRE, in this examination, the specialist will put up a lubricated and gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormal shape or thickness in the prostate gland. For the procedure, the patient has to lie either on the stomach or on his side, on the table Both, Digital Rectal Examination (DSA) and prostate-specific antigen blood test are performed, to get comprehensive data to confirm diagnosis.

Other diagnostic tests that are performed are:

Biopsy: A thin and flexible tube is inserted to gently scrape off a small amount of tissue from the prostate gland for pathological analysis.
Imaging techniques: Computerized tomography scan (CT scan), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or a bone scan provides detailed images of the internal organs of the body.

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Treatment for Prostate Cancer

The treatment approaches depend on the type, stage and malignant nature of cancer and the individual’s health condition as well. Based on these factors, our specialists recommend the best treatment approaches:

Regular Monitoring: If the PSA levels are only slightly elevated, no treatment is recommended, however, these levels will be monitored at regular intervals to avoid complications.
Surgery: Our specialists may suggest a prostatectomy, the removal of the prostate gland and can be performed as an open surgery or laparoscopic surgery.
Radiation therapy: In radiation therapy, two types of treatment are provided based on the symptoms and requirements:
Plastic reconstruction: A multitude of options are available to reconstruct the breast to enhance cosmesis, which includes rotation of tissue, using muscle and skin from nearby areas known as pedicle flap, or can be done as free flap also.
Chemotherapy - Drugs to treat cancer cells are injected into the body, these drugs have tolerable side effects, and the side effects have been minimized with new forms of chemotherapy drugs with the evolving changes in medical and treatment approaches. Chemotherapy is crucial to contain the cancer cells circulating in the blood.
Radiation therapy: Intense energy usually X-rays or proton radiation is aimed directly at the operated area to kill cancer cells to minimize recurrence.
  • Brachytherapy: Our specialists place a radioactive seed or capsule into the prostate gland to deliver targeted radiation.
  • Conformal radiation therapy: This therapy targets a small area in the gland, thus minimizing the risk of eliminating healthy cells.
Chemotherapy: Employing oral or injectible drugs to eliminate cancer cells.
Targeted therapy: Patients having genetic mutations like BRCA 1 and/or BRCA 2, are offered targeted treatment in advanced stages to get the maximum outcome with the least side effects.
Hormonal therapy: Male hormones such as androgens, which include testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are blocked or reduced by this therapy. Since these hormones provide a suitable environment for the cancer cells to grow and metastasize.

Depending on the individual’s health condition, a few complications can occur and the commonly visible complications of the treatments are:

  • Incontinence
  • Erectile Dysfunction


Dr G.K.Shreedhar
Surgical oncology
Dr. Shreedhar G K
Surgical oncology
Dr. Saravana Rajamanickam
Radiation oncology
Dr. Karthick Rajamanickam
Radiation Oncology
Dr. N. Kathiresan
Medical Oncology
Dr. Bhavesh Poladia